Four Waves of Georgia (Caucasus) Y-DNA SNP population (Draft)


Analyzing waves of Caucasus re-population after LGM (having in mind possible hiatus [i]) using YFull database, for Georgia (Caucasus) specific Y-DNA SNPs. Timetable shows, that there were possible four important waves of re-population and invasions:

  1. Initial re-population J2a (J-SK1312 KK1) by Caucasian hunter-gatherers (CHG, Kotias Klde) colonists ~10-12K ybp
  2. G* Anatolian (? South-East European via North Caucasus) hunter-gatherers [herders?] (AHG) ~6-7K ybp
  3. J2a* Caucasus specific Fertile Crescent farmers SNPs (FCF) ~4-6K ybp and may be contained several sub-invasions — 6K and 4.5K (see table).
  4. R* herders invasion is not especially discussed here, as their invasion into Caucasus is better documented.

Previous researches have not mentioned two waves of J2a invasions [ii] intermediated by G* invasion.

Initial (CHG) and third (FCF) migrations most probably were via Euphrates — Çoruh corridor.  Second wave of migration (G*) can be a) via North Caucasus (Black Sea shore or Aragvi — Terek corridor), or b) from East Anatolia via Euphrates — Kura-Araxes-Çoruh corridor.   Migration of R* herders most probably was via North Caucasus (Aragvi — Terek corridor) or from the East Caucasus via Caspian Sea shore and then up Kura and Araxes rivers.

Invasion of descendant SNPs of J-Y3640 formed almost exactly in Fertile Crescent ~4-5K ybp appeared very specific for East Georgia and East North Caucasus — as Geographically Consolidated Clade branch.

May be, as 5K ybp in Sweden: «Genetically speaking, Sweden’s Neolithic farmers resembled today’s southern Europeans, while their hunter-gatherer neighbors looked like modern Finns… “Contact between hunter-gatherer and farming populations was initially low as farmers spread from the south, but they later started mixing more and more,” he explained. “What happened when they met is mainly a question for archaeology, and we hope that our study can provide some perspectives and hypotheses for archaeologists to work with.” — Skoglund P.» [iiiii]

Four waves of invasion into Caucasus divided by 2-5K years stability can be taken into account analyzing cultural (technological) and linguistic development of Georgia (Caucasus), especially for late SNPs descended from Fertile Crescent J-Y3640.

May be Karvelian (Ibero-Caucasian) languages are descendants or got important linguistic injections  from oldest prior(non)-Semitic language of Fertile Crescent population of/on two different stages of this language development divided by up to 5-7K years. Most probably language was more dependent on mtDNA (less mobile) then on Y-DNA, so more mtDNA data is needed.

According Gamkrelidze-Ivanov linguistic reconstruction (Y-DNA R* proto-Indo-Europeans in Anatolia) —  and contacts there with AHG Y-DNA G* who later migrated to Georgia (Caucasus)  Indo-European linguistic elements early migration into proto-Kartvelian looks more possible. Or, if G* migrated via North Caucasus — it can contact Indo-Europeans R* in South-East European steppe [iiii].

Four waves of invasions also are correlated with global climatic events — as:

which can influence-initiated migration waves especially from Fertile Crescent via Euphrates—Kura-Araxes-Çoruh DNA migration corridor.

After post LGM initial re-population of Caucasus till invasion of R* — Caucasus population was grown 5-10 times and scarce resources may become in shortage. From other side invention of cattle and primitive agriculture given better feeding-nutrition ability.

Invasions after 5-7K ybp may import to long time isolated local populations extremely dangerous diseases caused death up to 70-80% of them, by this caused dramatic change of population Y-DNA SNP structure. Old populations can be preserved inside wooded high mountainous gorges and other well isolated wooded regions.

After around 5K ybp, when locally adapted population of the Caucasus grown, may be started fight among local population and invaders for scarce resources followed by mass slaughter and execution of local population if they having weapons or human resources priority — force locals to migrate or find some natural shelters.

Around 6500 BCE (8500 ybp), a warmer and more humid Atlantic phase was concomitant with the development of a mixed oak forest (Carpinus caucasicus, Quercus, Ulmus), both in the lowlands and in the highlands, as identified by pollen cores sampled in Armenia, South Georgia, SE Turkey, and NW Iran. In the South Caucasus, this phase was connected to the development of the Late Neolithic Aratashen-Shulaveri-Shomu culture. During the mid-Holocene, evidence for increased rainfall is seen at many sites in Georgia. The first part of this period corresponds to the Chalcolithic (c. 5000–3500 BCE), a phase marked by striking socioeconomic changes such as increasing pastoral activities and shifts
in settlement patterns.
Source >

[i] Colchis LGM CHG Isolated Refugium and Refugia: Population: Hiatus vs Continuity

[ii] Human Paternal Lineages, Languages and Environment in the Caucasus. David Tarkhnishvili

[iii] Different waves and directions of Neolithic migrations in the Armenian Highland. Anahit Hovhannisyan

[iiii] Distinguishing the co-ancestries of haplogroup G Y-chromosomes in the populations of Europe and the Caucasus. Siiri Rootsi

[iiiii] Migrants Brought Farming to Europe, Ancient DNA Suggests


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Georgia (Caucasus) J* And G* SNP Timetable

Timetable of tested SNPs on Georgia (Caucasus) according yfull database. It seems that G* haplogroup SNPs migrated here more than 7000 years after SK1321. SK1321 shows high level of consolidation (geographically compact descendant SNPs) as well as G-Z7958. No other G* SNPs are consolidated at such level.

საქართველოსა (და კავკასიაში) აღნუსხული SK1321 (კოტიას მღვიმე) და G* ჰაპლოჯგუფების SNP-ების წარმოქმნის ისტორია. საფუძვლად აღებული yfull მონაცემები თითქოს წარმოაჩენს, რომ G* ჰაპლოჯგუფი აქ გაცილებით გვიან გავრცელდა ვიდრე SK1321. ამასთან SK1321 ჩამომავალი SNP-ები სივრცობრივად კონსოლიდებული არიან ანუ შედარებთ მცირე ტერიტორიაზე ვითარდებოდნენ.

Georgia (Caucasus) SNP Timetable

Georgia (Caucasus) SNP Timetable

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LGM Caucasus: Glaciers and Permafrost 20-10K ybp: Map Modelling Draft

LGM 20-15-10K ybp 300 txt

Great Caucasus LGM 20-10K ybp
Glaciers and permafrost areas
(500-750 a.s.l. and above)
Modeling based on orography

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Colchis LGM CHG Isolated Refugium and Refugia: Glaciers and permafrost: Dzudzuana example

«The results of the campaigns in Satsurblia {*} and Dzudzuana {**} suggest that at present the most plausible scenario is one of a hiatus in the occupation of this region during the LGM (between 24.4–17.9 ka cal. BP). Future fieldwork will aim to assess earlier occupations and in particular to investigate whether the hiatus in occupation in Dzudzuana between Units D (34.5–32.2 ka cal. NP) and C (27−24 ka cal. BP) also occurs in Satsurblia, suggesting an additional regional (and potentially pan-regional) occupational hiatus.»[1]

In this case is to be taken into account situation, when Dzudzuana cave may be was out of reach for existing CHG population and not fact of absence of population — because place was covered with glacier and permafrost.

Dzudzuana cave was inhabited intermittently during several periods dated to 32 to 26 thousand years before the present (kyr B.P.), 23 to 19 kyr B.P., and 13 to 11 kyr B.P.

Dzudzuana cave (like Kotias Klde {***}), situated 560 meters above modern sea level and 12 meters above the current channel of the Nekressi River,  most probably was used by CHGs periodically/seasonally (not for permanent living) and especially during late spring – early summer (time when hunting was main source of food). [2] Other seasons CHGs can find enough food gathering chestnut and other plants.

During LGM during late spring (especially) and even early summer local glacier was of maximum size, so Dzudzuana cave and surroundings were not useful and out of main hunting territory. This resulted absence of evidence archaeological data.


Satsurblia: New Insights of Human Response… Ron Pinhasi,

W.refugia Dzudzuana

W.refugia 750.jpg

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DNA migration corridor: Euphrates — Kura-Araxes-Çoruh-Aragvi — Terek

DNA migration corridor: Euphrates — Kura-Araxes-Çoruh-Aragvi — Terek (Like “Rhine-Danube corridor”) [1]

Mesolithic period or Middle Stone Age, period in human development between the end of the Paleolithic period and the beginning of the Neolithic period. It began with the end of the last glacial period over 10,000 years ago and evolved into the Neolithic period; this change involved the gradual domestication of plants and animals and the formation of settled communities at various times and places.

Characteristic of the period were hunting and fishing settlements along rivers.

East Anatolia and Caucasus can not be analised as a plain territory, where moving ability of group of humans is possible to any direction. Moving ability is hardly determined by physical geography factors: mountains, river stream beds and high mountain paths.
Red lines showing principal paths for actually all migrations here (also pre-Homo sapiens) — Y-DNA J…, G… and R…. Some migrations were S2N others N2S. Movements were roughly determined by relief and so, were to use best (most ergonomic) way and this was along rivers.

Map shows chain of river “stream beds” and available mountain paths — “Corridor” in “inexpugnable” (hard-to-reach, труднодоступный) mountainous region which can be used for spreading some DNA carrier ancient population groups moving from South to North or vise-verse.



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Colchis LGM CHG Isolated Refugium and Refugia: Population: Hiatus vs Continuity


«The study of the UP Layer in Satsurblia has revealed evidence of human occupation during the pre-LGM period (Area B, Layers B/II and B/III), 25.5–24.4 ka cal. BP, an interval broadly contemporaneous with part of the occupation in Dzudzuana C (27–24 ka cal. BP). The chronology of Layer AII/a and A/IIb indicate the presence of a new post-LGM phase (Area A, Layers A/IIa and A/IIb: 17.9–16.2 ka cal. BP). The latter provides new evidence for human occupation in this region more than a millennium prior to what was previously known based on the radiocarbon-based chronology of Dzudzuana B (16.5–13.2 ka cal. BP…
The results of the campaigns in Satsurblia and Dzudzuana suggest that at present the most plausible scenario is one of a hiatus in the occupation of this region during the LGM (between 24.4–17.9 ka cal. BP). Future fieldwork will aim to assess earlier occupations and in particular to investigate whether the hiatus in occupation in Dzudzuana between Units D (34.5–32.2 ka cal. NP) and C (27−24 ka cal. BP) also occurs in Satsurblia, suggesting an additional regional (and potentially pan-regional) occupational hiatus.»[1]

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Colchis LGM CHG Isolated Refugium and Refugia: Nutrition: Chestnut


«The main chestnut refugia are located in the Transcaucasian region… In particular, additional profiles indicating a strong chestnut presence are added, such as the sites in the Caucasus… The most consistent shelter zone is represented by the Trans-Caucasian region (located mostly south of the Caucasian chain, in the territory of today’s Georgia…)»[1]

Quaternary refugia of the sweet chestnut 1

Main refugium areas of the European chestnut according to their probability level (P.Krebs, M.Conedera, et al.)

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