Four Waves of Georgia (Caucasus) Y-DNA SNP population (Draft)


Analyzing waves of Caucasus re-population after LGM (having in mind possible hiatus [i]) using YFull database, for Georgia (Caucasus) specific Y-DNA SNPs. Timetable shows, that there were possible four important waves of re-population and invasions:

  1. Initial re-population J2a (J-SK1312 KK1) by Caucasian hunter-gatherers (CHG, Kotias Klde) colonists ~10-12K ybp
  2. G* Anatolian (? South-East European via North Caucasus) hunter-gatherers [herders?] (AHG) ~6-7K ybp
  3. J2a* Caucasus specific Fertile Crescent farmers SNPs (FCF) ~4-6K ybp and may be contained several sub-invasions — 6K and 4.5K (see table).
  4. R* herders invasion is not especially discussed here, as their invasion into Caucasus is better documented.

Previous researches have not mentioned two waves of J2a invasions [ii] intermediated by G* invasion.

Initial (CHG) and third (FCF) migrations most probably were via Euphrates — Çoruh corridor.  Second wave of migration (G*) can be a) via North Caucasus (Black Sea shore or Aragvi — Terek corridor), or b) from East Anatolia via Euphrates — Kura-Araxes-Çoruh corridor.   Migration of R* herders most probably was via North Caucasus (Aragvi — Terek corridor) or from the East Caucasus via Caspian Sea shore and then up Kura and Araxes rivers.

Invasion of descendant SNPs of J-Y3640 formed almost exactly in Fertile Crescent ~4-5K ybp appeared very specific for East Georgia and East North Caucasus — as Geographically Consolidated Clade branch.

May be, as 5K ybp in Sweden: «Genetically speaking, Sweden’s Neolithic farmers resembled today’s southern Europeans, while their hunter-gatherer neighbors looked like modern Finns… “Contact between hunter-gatherer and farming populations was initially low as farmers spread from the south, but they later started mixing more and more,” he explained. “What happened when they met is mainly a question for archaeology, and we hope that our study can provide some perspectives and hypotheses for archaeologists to work with.” — Skoglund P.» [iiiii]

Four waves of invasion into Caucasus divided by 2-5K years stability can be taken into account analyzing cultural (technological) and linguistic development of Georgia (Caucasus), especially for late SNPs descended from Fertile Crescent J-Y3640.

May be Karvelian (Ibero-Caucasian) languages are descendants or got important linguistic injections  from oldest prior(non)-Semitic language of Fertile Crescent population of/on two different stages of this language development divided by up to 5-7K years. Most probably language was more dependent on mtDNA (less mobile) then on Y-DNA, so more mtDNA data is needed.

According Gamkrelidze-Ivanov linguistic reconstruction (Y-DNA R* proto-Indo-Europeans in Anatolia) —  and contacts there with AHG Y-DNA G* who later migrated to Georgia (Caucasus)  Indo-European linguistic elements early migration into proto-Kartvelian looks more possible. Or, if G* migrated via North Caucasus — it can contact Indo-Europeans R* in South-East European steppe [iiii].

Four waves of invasions also are correlated with global climatic events — as:

which can influence-initiated migration waves especially from Fertile Crescent via Euphrates—Kura-Araxes-Çoruh DNA migration corridor.

After post LGM initial re-population of Caucasus till invasion of R* — Caucasus population was grown 5-10 times and scarce resources may become in shortage. From other side invention of cattle and primitive agriculture given better feeding-nutrition ability.

Invasions after 5-7K ybp may import to long time isolated local populations extremely dangerous diseases caused death up to 70-80% of them, by this caused dramatic change of population Y-DNA SNP structure. Old populations can be preserved inside wooded high mountainous gorges and other well isolated wooded regions.

After around 5K ybp, when locally adapted population of the Caucasus grown, may be started fight among local population and invaders for scarce resources followed by mass slaughter and execution of local population if they having weapons or human resources priority — force locals to migrate or find some natural shelters.

Around 6500 BCE (8500 ybp), a warmer and more humid Atlantic phase was concomitant with the development of a mixed oak forest (Carpinus caucasicus, Quercus, Ulmus), both in the lowlands and in the highlands, as identified by pollen cores sampled in Armenia, South Georgia, SE Turkey, and NW Iran. In the South Caucasus, this phase was connected to the development of the Late Neolithic Aratashen-Shulaveri-Shomu culture. During the mid-Holocene, evidence for increased rainfall is seen at many sites in Georgia. The first part of this period corresponds to the Chalcolithic (c. 5000–3500 BCE), a phase marked by striking socioeconomic changes such as increasing pastoral activities and shifts
in settlement patterns.
Source >

[i] Colchis LGM CHG Isolated Refugium and Refugia: Population: Hiatus vs Continuity

[ii] Human Paternal Lineages, Languages and Environment in the Caucasus. David Tarkhnishvili

[iii] Different waves and directions of Neolithic migrations in the Armenian Highland. Anahit Hovhannisyan

[iiii] Distinguishing the co-ancestries of haplogroup G Y-chromosomes in the populations of Europe and the Caucasus. Siiri Rootsi

[iiiii] Migrants Brought Farming to Europe, Ancient DNA Suggests


2 J Georgia (Caucasus) SNP Timetable

Caucasus (Georgia) J2a* Colonization SNP Timetable Tree

Caucasus (Georgia) G2a Colonization SNP Timetable Tree

Caucasus (Georgia) G2a* Colonization SNP Timetable Tree


Georgia (Caucasus) Specific Y-DNA SNP Clades Clusters Timetable

Georgia (Caucasus) Specific Y-DNA SNP Clades Clusters Timetable

See PDF:
Georgia (Caucasus) Specific Y-DNA SNP Clades Clusters Timetable

Georgian DNA Project Family Tree DNA
Registered sub clades of G*, formed (* proportion)

G2a2a1a1a – M286 7700 ybp
G2a2b1a1 – Y24446 7700 ybp (G-Z41193 4500 ybp) *

Geographically consolidated
G2a2b2a1a1a2 – L1266 7700 ybp ***

G2a2b2a1a1a2a – G-L1264 7700 ybp

Geographically most consolidated
1a – G-Z6679 6700 ybp ***
G2a1a1a1a1 – G-Z6692 6400 ybp **
G2a1a1a1a1a – G-Z7958 6000 ybp ****
G2a1a1a1a1a1 – G-Z7940 4400 ybp ***
G2a1a1a1a1a1a1a – Z7941 4200 ybp **
G2a1a1a1a1a1b – FGC719 4200 ybp
G2a1a1a1a1a1b1 – Z7947 4200 ybp

G2a1a1a2 – FGC1160 6400 ybp

YSEQ J-Y3640 SNP North Caucasus (4200 ybp) Geographically Consolidated Clade branch

G-Z6653 Caucasus Geographically Consolidated Clade branch of G*
Svaneti G* most depended on mountainous regions and especially on ~ 5-4k ybp clades.
Branch of wide Euro-Caucasian G-U1


G-Z6653 Caucasus branch of G*


Caucasian geographically consolidated clade branch G-Z6679


Caucasian geographically consolidated clade branch G-Z6679


Caucasian geographically consolidated (Approximate data of Caucasus migration 7700 ybp) clade of G* G-L1266 branch of wide Euro-Caucasian G-U1


Caucasian Geographically Consolidated Clade branch of J-Z6046


Caucasian and Out-Caucasian subclades of J-Z6046* — geographically divided after 18300 ybp and before 15400 ybp — probably 16500 ybp.

Caucasian geographically consolidated clade branch J-Y3640

Caucasian specific J-Y3640

Caucasian geographically consolidated clade branch J-Y3640



Geographically consolidated Caucasus Armenian R1b* SNPs — R-Y4364 (formed 5700-2600 ybp)… — Approximate data of Caucasus migration 4500 ybp…


Consolidated Caucasus Armenian R1b* SNPs — R-Y4364


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