LGM Caucasus: Glaciers and Permafrost 20-10K ybp: Map Modelling Draft


 

LGM 20-15-10K ybp 300 txt

Great Caucasus LGM 20-10K ybp
Glaciers and permafrost areas
(500-750 a.s.l. and above)
Modeling based on orography

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Colchis LGM CHG Isolated Refugium and Refugia: Glaciers and permafrost: Dzudzuana example


«The results of the campaigns in Satsurblia {*} and Dzudzuana {**} suggest that at present the most plausible scenario is one of a hiatus in the occupation of this region during the LGM (between 24.4–17.9 ka cal. BP). Future fieldwork will aim to assess earlier occupations and in particular to investigate whether the hiatus in occupation in Dzudzuana between Units D (34.5–32.2 ka cal. NP) and C (27−24 ka cal. BP) also occurs in Satsurblia, suggesting an additional regional (and potentially pan-regional) occupational hiatus.»[1]

In this case is to be taken into account situation, when Dzudzuana cave may be was out of reach for existing CHG population and not fact of absence of population — because place was covered with glacier and permafrost.

Dzudzuana cave was inhabited intermittently during several periods dated to 32 to 26 thousand years before the present (kyr B.P.), 23 to 19 kyr B.P., and 13 to 11 kyr B.P.

Dzudzuana cave (like Kotias Klde {***}), situated 560 meters above modern sea level and 12 meters above the current channel of the Nekressi River,  most probably was used by CHGs periodically/seasonally (not for permanent living) and especially during late spring – early summer (time when hunting was main source of food). [2] Other seasons CHGs can find enough food gathering chestnut and other plants.

During LGM during late spring (especially) and even early summer local glacier was of maximum size, so Dzudzuana cave and surroundings were not useful and out of main hunting territory. This resulted absence of evidence archaeological data.

W.refugia Dzudzuana

W.refugia 750.jpg

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DNA migration corridor: Euphrates — Kura-Araxes-Çoruh-Aragvi — Terek


DNA migration corridor: Euphrates — Kura-Araxes-Çoruh-Aragvi — Terek (Like “Rhine-Danube corridor”)

Mesolithic period or Middle Stone Age, period in human development between the end of the Paleolithic period and the beginning of the Neolithic period. It began with the end of the last glacial period over 10,000 years ago and evolved into the Neolithic period; this change involved the gradual domestication of plants and animals and the formation of settled communities at various times and places.

Characteristic of the period were hunting and fishing settlements along rivers.

East Anatolia and Caucasus can not be analised as a plain territory, where moving ability of group of humans is possible to any direction. Moving ability is hardly determined by physical geography factors: mountains, river stream beds and high mountain paths.
Red lines showing principal paths for actually all migrations here (also pre-Homo sapiens) — Y-DNA J…, G… and R…. Some migrations were S2N others N2S. Movements were roughly determined by relief and so, were to use best (most ergonomic) way and this was along rivers.

Map shows chain of river “stream beds” and available mountain paths — “Corridor” in “inexpugnable” (hard-to-reach, труднодоступный) mountainous region which can be used for spreading some DNA carrier ancient population groups moving from South to North or vise-verse.

111b

122b

Danubian corridor or Rhine-Danube corridor

002c

Colchis LGM CHG Isolated Refugium and Refugia: Population: Hiatus vs Continuity


Hiatus

«The study of the UP Layer in Satsurblia has revealed evidence of human occupation during the pre-LGM period (Area B, Layers B/II and B/III), 25.5–24.4 ka cal. BP, an interval broadly contemporaneous with part of the occupation in Dzudzuana C (27–24 ka cal. BP). The chronology of Layer AII/a and A/IIb indicate the presence of a new post-LGM phase (Area A, Layers A/IIa and A/IIb: 17.9–16.2 ka cal. BP). The latter provides new evidence for human occupation in this region more than a millennium prior to what was previously known based on the radiocarbon-based chronology of Dzudzuana B (16.5–13.2 ka cal. BP…
The results of the campaigns in Satsurblia and Dzudzuana suggest that at present the most plausible scenario is one of a hiatus in the occupation of this region during the LGM (between 24.4–17.9 ka cal. BP). Future fieldwork will aim to assess earlier occupations and in particular to investigate whether the hiatus in occupation in Dzudzuana between Units D (34.5–32.2 ka cal. NP) and C (27−24 ka cal. BP) also occurs in Satsurblia, suggesting an additional regional (and potentially pan-regional) occupational hiatus.»[1] Read more of this post

Colchis LGM CHG Isolated Refugium and Refugia: Nutrition: Chestnut


Sources

«The main chestnut refugia are located in the Transcaucasian region… In particular, additional profiles indicating a strong chestnut presence are added, such as the sites in the Caucasus… The most consistent shelter zone is represented by the Trans-Caucasian region (located mostly south of the Caucasian chain, in the territory of today’s Georgia…)»[1]

Quaternary refugia of the sweet chestnut 1

Main refugium areas of the European chestnut according to their probability level (P.Krebs, M.Conedera, et al.)

Palaeoclimatic models help to understand current distribution of Caucasian forest species

«Spatial projection of the most transferable models on the Caucasus and western Asia under current climatic conditions: left, uncorrected models; right, models corrected with the refugial distance … Cs, Castanea sativa…» [2]

Fig-2-Map-of-Georgia-showing-the-main-natural-vegetation-groups-modi-fi-ed-from-Bohn

Map of Georgia showing the main natural vegetation groups (Castanea sativa)… [3]

«Каштан обыкновенный (Castanea sativa Mill) в Аджарии растет от приморских берегов Черного моря до высоты 1300-1600 м н.у.м., причем на высоте от 400-500 до 1000-1100 м создает собственный вертикальный пояс. В горно-лесной зоне Аджарии в пределах своего пояса, где по сравнению с приморской зоной климат менее влажный, произрастают как чистые, так и смешанные с дубом, грабом, ясенем, буком и другими породами каштановые древостои. В основном климат зоны каштановых лесов умеренно влажный и умеренно теплый с продолжительным летом. … По данным Г.Н. Гигаури и К.Л. Тугуши (1967), 40 лет назад семенные девственные леса Абхазии имели среднюю высоту 28,5 м, средний диаметр 49 см и запас 505 м /га, т. е. соответственно в 1,5, 1,65 и 1,55 раза больше, чем в настоящее время в Аджарии. … Количество деревьев, шт/га 517~18.894» : In Adjara Castanea is forming monocultural wood zone from 400-500 and up to 1000-1100 m. a.s.l. Number of Castanea trees per hectare is not less than 500 (100 full grown tees). [4]

«Наибольшее количество плодоносящих деревьев наблюдается в типах леса каштанник ежевиковый и каштанник колхидский, самое меньшее — в каштаннике рододендроновом. Общий урожай плодов в этих типах соответственно равен 400, 320 и 100 кг/га. … Подсчитано, что из каштанников Кавказа можно ежегодно получать 40—50 тыс.т. плодов, из которых на долю Краснодарского края приходится около 19 тыс. т…» : Present-day economically effective potential of production of nuts in Caucasus is calculated as 40.000-50.000 tons.[5] Per hectare harvest potential in Colchis LGM refugium woods can be calculated as 250 kg.

«Caucasian types of chestnut can survive up to -25° C and grow up 1500 m. a.s.l. Best time for harvest is September-October. Flowers can be obtained by bees during May-June.» [6]

But, nuts can be found from mid-August till January – mid-February. I have collected nuts enough for one day nutrition of several people from one tree in mid December, in mountains near Tsalenjikha.

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ჯ.ბეიკერი ზვიად გამსახურდიაზე


The Politics of Diplomacy: Revolution, War and Peace 1989-1992, 1995, 687 pages
by James Addison Baker

Baker_Book

Baker_Gamsakhurdia_Index

Baker_Gamsakhurdia_Text_p665

დინარა კვარაცხელიას მოგონებები ზ.გამსახურდიაზე


დინარა კვარაცხელიას (ჯონსონ კვარაცხელიას ქალიშვილის, სოფ. ჯიხაშკარი) მოგონებები ზვიად გამსახურდიას შესახებ (Youtube ვიდეო) — სტუმრობა, ავადმყოფობა და მიცვალებულის გაპატიოსნება, ცხედრის მდგომარეობა… დინარა კვარაცხელია საგანაგებოდ აღნიშნავს, რომ ცხედარს არ ჰქონდა რაიმე დაზიანებები — წამების ან ცემის რაიმე კვალი. იგი იმოწმებს აგრეთვე ექიმ ჯალაღონიას — რომელმაც ბალზამირება ჩაუტარა ცხედარს:

eqimi_jalagonia

გაზ. „მამული“, 2000 წ., ოქტომბერი, № 19 (ესაუბრა ბელა შალვაშვილი)

გაზ. „მამული“, 2000 წ., ოქტომბერი, № 19

jalagonia_koko_bpg

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